Arizona’s Ever-Changing Constitution

What’s with all these propositions?

Arizona’s Constitution can be amended in 3 ways. The Legislature may vote to put a proposal on the ballot (Referendum). Second, the voters may submit a petition with the required number of signatures (Initiative).  Regardless of the means of getting on the ballot, if a majority votes for the proposition, it becomes law and the Constitution is changed. The 3rd method is for the Legislature to propose a Constitutional Convention. In that case, the voters must approve the Convention and any revisions that the Convention recommends. These routes to change our Constitution make for some vibrant, interactive, and often rowdy election cycles!

At the State of Arizona Research Library we have lots of materials about the Arizona Constitution. You can browse the Minutes or the Records of the Constitutional Convention of 1910.

 

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You can compare the Arizona Constitution with the U.S. Constitution with these publications from the Arizona Secretary of State’s Office.

You can see how the Arizona Constitution has changed over the years at our Constitution Timeline here.

You can study the work of experts who have analyzed the Constitution by viewing these titles (and more) in our Reading Room or borrowing them through your public library via interlibrary loan. The Toni McClory book is also available for free as an ebook through Reading Arizona!

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And you can vote! There are 3 proposed Constitutional amendments on the ballot for the 2018 midterm election on November 6, 2018.  Here’s the publicity pamphlet for this year’s General Election.

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Arizona’s Territorial Legislature

Arizona’s Legislature met to debate the issues of the day and pass laws, long before Arizona became a state. The Legislature met in Prescott between 1864 and 1867, and again between 1879 and 1889. In between they met in Tucson, before settling in to Phoenix in 1891 to stay.

We have copies of the enacted laws (“Session Laws”) passed by the Territorial Legislature dating from 1864 until Arizona became a state on February 14, 1912. We were the “Valentine to the Nation”. We also have copies of the Session Laws passed since Statehood, which you can research in print in our Reading Room or browse online on the Arizona Memory Project here.

Session LawsWe think it’s vital to preserve these irreplaceable materials. We keep a print copy that is accessible to users. We also make digital copies of everything we can, and post them online so people can access them from anywhere there is an internet connection. We set aside a good-quality preservation copy of each document. Then we select multiple duplicates whenever possible to use as replacements for the accessible copies. We keep the preservation copies and the duplicate replacement copies in separate climate-controlled spaces to assure that the information in them will not be lost.

These may not be things to curl up on a comfy couch and read. But preserving them is just one of the many things we do here at the State of Arizona Research Library.

If you wish to come see the Session Laws or any other historic or current law material in person, stop by the Polly Rosenbaum Archives and History Building at 1901 W. Madison Street, Phoenix any Monday through Friday (except state holidays).

List of individuals who have lain in state at the Arizona State Capitol

  • Governor Joseph H. Kibbey, 1924
    (1924, June 15). Judge Joseph H. Kibbey Of Phoenix Dies. The Arizona Republican.
  • Secretary of State J. C. Callaghan, 1929
    (1929, January 28). Callaghan Succumbs In Hospital. The Arizona Republican.
  • Major William Paul Geary, 1929
    (1929, December 6). Maj. W. P. Geary Dies In Veterans’ Hospital, Body To Lie In State. The Arizona Republican.
  • Governor George W. P. Hunt, 1934
    (1934, December 26). George W. P. Hunt’s Rites Are Set Friday. The Arizona Republic.
  • Pioneer Scott White, 1935
    (1935, March 6). White, Scott. The Arizona Republic.
  • Pioneer Daniel P. Jones, 1935
    (1935, July 9). Jones Rites Slated Today. The Arizona Republic.
  • General Oscar F. Temple, 1936
    (1936, February 7). General’s Last Rites Due Today. The Arizona Republic.
  • State Legislator Rose F. Godfrey, 1936
    (1936, August 3). Rose F. Godfrey Rites Set Today. The Arizona Republic.
  • Governor Benjamin B. Moeur, 1937
    (1937, March 19). Former Governor Is Paid Last Respects. The Phoenix Gazette.
  • Secretary of State Harry M. Moore, 1942
    (1942, November 24). Moore Funeral Is Set; Body To Lie In State At Capitol. The Arizona Republic.
  • Governor John C. Phillips, 1943
    (1943, June 27). Ex-Governor To Lie In State Tomorrow; Rites Set Tuesday. The Arizona Republic.
  • Governor Thomas Campbell, 1944
    (1944, March 3). Campbell Body To Lie In State At Capitol. The Arizona Republic.
  • William B. Kelly, 1948
    (1948, February 15). Pioneer State Editor, Dies. The Arizona Republic.
  • Governor Sidney P. Osborn, 1948
    Turnbow, B. (1948, May 28). Nation Joins State, City In Tribute: Thousands From All Walks Pay Respects To Fallen Governor. The Phoenix Gazette.
  • State Legislator W. G. Rosenbaum, 1949
    (1949, January 14). State To Pay Rosenbaum Honor Today. The Arizona Republic.
  • Judge Alfred C. Lockwood, 1951
    (1951, October 31). Famed State Jurist Dies. The Arizona Republic.
  • State Legislator Elijah Allen, 1953
    (1953, July 3). Body Of Elijah Allen To Lie In State At Capitol Today. The Arizona Republic.
  • Ira H. Hayes, 1955
    Dedera, D. (1955, January 28). Pima Tribesmen Weep at Farewell to War Hero Brother Ira Hayes. The Arizona Republic.
  • State Senator (and State Librarian)  Mulford Winsor, 1956
    (1956, November 7). Mulford Winsor Is Dead. The Phoenix Gazette.
  • Bill Turnbow, 1957
    King, B. (1957, June 29). Body of Turnbow Will Lie In State. The Arizona Republic.
  • Judge Arthur T. La Prade, 1957
    (1957, July 2). LaPrade’s Body To Lie In State Today. The Arizona Republic.
  • Constitutional Delegate Alexander Tuthill, 1958
    (1958, May 27). Tuthill. The Arizona Republic.
  • Governor Robert T. Jones, 1958
    (1958, June 12). Body Of Ex-Governor Jones To Lie In State In State Capitol Rotunda. The Arizona Republic.
  • ASU President Grady Gammage, 1959
    Meibert, V. (1959, December 23). Death Unexpected For ASU President. The Arizona Republic.
  • Governor R. C. Stanford. 1963
    (1963, December 16). Came Here as Boy in Covered Wagon. The Arizona Republic.
  • Leslie C. Hardy, 1968
    (1968, October 19). Leslie Hardy directed revision of Arizona Code. The Arizona Republic.
  • Senator Carl Hayden, 1972
    (1972, January 26). Public Funeral Services Saturday: Former Sen. Hayden. The Daily Courier.
  • Arizona Senator Harold Giss, 1973
    (1973, April 18). Memorial Session at Capitol Today: Legislators Pay Last Respects to Giss. The Arizona Republic.
  • Governor Dan Garvey, 1974
    (1974, February 7). Ex-Gov. Dan E. Garvey to lie in state at Capitol. The Arizona Republic.
  • Judge Charles C. Bernstein, 1976
    (1976, April 30). Charles Bernstein Dies at 71; Ex-Justice on State High Court. The Arizona Republic.
  • Governor Wesley Bolin, 1978
    Swanson, J. (1978, March 6). Wesley Bolin Lies in State at Capitol Today. The Arizona Republic.
  • Mine Inspector Verne C. McCutchan, 1978
    (1978, August 22). Arizona mine inspector dies after illness. The Arizona Republic.
  • Jesse Owens, 1980
    Sowers, C. (1980, April 3). Hundreds Pay Respects to Jesse Owens. The Arizona Republic.
  • Chief Justice Jesse Udall, 1980
    Richards, J. M. Jesse A. Udall: Republican in House from Graham County –Tenth and Eleventh Legislatures of Arizona. Compiled for the Arizona Legislative Council.
  • Governor Ernest W. McFarland, 1984
    (1984, June 9). Death takes Ernest W. McFarland, former governor, legislator, jurist. The Arizona Republic.
  • State Senator Marilyn Jarrett, 2006
    (2006, March 16). Marilyn Jarrett. The Arizona Republic.
  • Senator John S. McCain III, 2018
    Hansen, R. (2018, August 29). John McCain remembered at state Capitol ceremony: ‘We can be proud he was our senator.’ AZCentral.com

 

The death of Johnny Ringo

2018-07-13 Johnny RingoGunfighter Johnny Ringo died 136 years ago today, and legends still circulate on whether anyone was his “huckleberry,” as the fictional Doc Holiday states in 1993’s Tombstone. According to the Weekly Tombstone Epitaph, John Yost found Ringo’s body near the mouth of Morse Canyon in the Chiricahua Mountains.

“Many friends will mourn him, and many others will take secret delight in learning of his death,” the story closes. Historians and writers have speculated on whoever would take secret delight ever since, but the Cochise County Coroner ruled it suicide. Ringo is buried not far from where his body was discovered, currently on private property.

Ringo 7-13-1882 picture
Tombstone Weekly Epitaph

Digitizing history: The Apache Sentinel

In 2017, the Arizona State Library, Archives & Public Records and University of Arizona Libraries received a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) to digitize 100,000 pages of historic Arizona newspapers as part of the National Digital Newspaper Program (NDNP).

The newspapers digitized through this grant will be available to the public on the Library of Congress’ Chronicling America website as well as the Arizona Memory Project website.

A particular focus of this grant stated that newspapers would be selected to include communities under-represented in previous grant cycles, such as Spanish language and Mexican American newspapers, Native American community newspapers, African American community newspapers, and more.

One notable newspaper is The Apache Sentinel which began publication at Fort Huachuca in July of 1943. At one point during the war effort approximately 25,000 people were living at the fort, making it the third largest city in Arizona at the time. A primary demographic was African American soldiers.  According to the Tucson Historic Preservation Foundation, 14,000 black soldiers and WACs lived at Fort Huachuca, and the Apache Sentinel was the newspaper that chronicled the social activities and training of those who lived at the fort.

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The Apache Sentinel is an important historical record for researchers and genealogists alike, with compelling photojournalism and biographical information.

Here you can see an issue of The Apache Sentinel from August 6, 1943 featuring articles by Thelma Thurston Gorham and photographs of WAACS dressed up for events, African American nurses, The Service Command’s Band, Hollywood celebrities visiting, soldier training in an office with WAACS and artist Anna Russel who contributes cartoons to the issue.

The State of Arizona Research Library is excited to digitize (and preserve) this important piece of Arizona cultural heritage. As part of these efforts, we are producing a short documentary about the history of the Apache Sentinel newspaper and its role at Fort Huachuca.

Fort Huachuca housed the 92nd Division of the Army – an all-black division of men. It also housed two companies of WAACs, the 32nd and 33rd, becoming the first WAAC companies assigned to an army training post. (The acronym WAACs was used until September of 1943 when the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps became the Women’s Army Corps.)

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African American soldiers and WACs at Fort Huachuca lived under segregated conditions. In fact, at Fort Huachuca two officers clubs were built – Lakeside for white officers and Mountain View for black officers. When the Army built the Mountain View Officers Club it was supposed to be temporary, but more than 70 years later the building still stands, albeit in need of preservation.

In March of 2018, came the announcement that state officials, historic preservationists, and community members had received a $500,000 grant to continue their efforts to restore the Mountain View Officers Club building, saving it from demolition.

Army garrison spokeswoman Tonja Linton said only two black officers clubs from World War II remain standing in the U.S.  – Mountain View and one in Fort Leonard Wood in Missouri.

This announcement adds further excitement and interest to the story of Fort Huachuca, which swelled to a population of over 25,000 at war time, and thereby introduced thousands of soldiers to the Arizona desert.  It is a great example of how a single historic newspaper contributed to the cultural identity of Arizona.

This the 4th NDNP grant received by the State of Arizona Library, Archives and Public Records.

For more information, contact:

Alison Sweet, NDNP Project Coordinator
State of Arizona Research Library
602-926-3856
asweet@azlibrary.gov

Sativa Peterson, News Content Program Manager
State of Arizona Research Library
602-926-3662
speterson@azlibrary.gov

The Apache Sentinel, Vol. 1 No. 4, August 6, 1943.

 

Book Curses

Libraries have long employed book curses to protect their volumes, and the State Research Library is no exception! However, instead of calling upon ravens to pluck out the thieves’ eyes, ours invoke honor, history, and money.

Mulford Winsor, State Librarian from 1932-1956, affixed this warning to newspaper folio volumes kept at the State Library, noting they are “compiled and bound at considerable expense of time, labor, and money.” Winsor was active in newspaper work as well as politics. As State Librarian, he developed the newspaper collection for “all investigators, research workers and historians who may have need of it.”
Book PlateIronically, the changing nature of preservation and access would make such measures unnecessary.  The warning correctly notes “The pages become brittle with age, and are easily broken.”  But, to preserve the newspapers for the future generations, State Library staff have had to disobey many, many of these printed warnings.

Unbinding and cutting apart the volumes is the first step in microfilming and digitizing newspapers. Researchers who have seen microfilm of bound pages, with important details swallowed up in the bound crease of the page, know why.  Collators over the years have encountered stitched bindings, and newspapers held together with staples as thick as carpenters’ nails. At first the papers were merely microfilmed for preservation and access, but beginning in 2004, the National Digital Newspaper Program began funding digitization of the microfilm, which the State Research Library has participated in since 2007, leading to the Arizona Digital Newspaper Program, where researchers can enjoy what those massive newspaper folios protected—without the threat of a curse!

 

New Hampshire State Library: 300 Years!

One of our fellow state libraries, New Hampshire, is turning 300 this year! The New Hampshire State Library began with two books and a proclamation by the New Hampshire General Assembly.

To learn more: http://nhpr.org/post/nh-state-library-first-nation-celebrates-300-years#stream/0

To learn about the history of the Arizona State Library: http://azmemory.azlibrary.gov/cdm/ref/collection/ann/id/62